what is travel angle in welding

December 12, 2020   |   

When you are welding a joint that has the same thickness then your work angle will take place in the center of the joint. When it becomes necessary to reestablish the arc (as in a long weld that requires the use of more than one electrode), the crater must first be cleaned before striking the arc. //-->, Welder Qualification Test Via Advice section, Open root v groove butt joint 3G vertical up. Some stick machines also have a setting known as Dig. Move the arc backward over the crater, and then move forward again and continue the weld. The travel angle is the angle of the wire as it travels along the weld path. When you are push welding you are forehand welding. Normal welding conditions in all positions call for a travel angle of 5 to 15 degrees. The travel angle is also known as the drag or push angle. As you can see in the first diagram, the angle of the torch to the work piece (left) is 90 degrees, allowing maximum heat and current focused down into the open groove butt joint. This condition leads to weld embrittlement and early failure. Similar to MAG welding torch position and angles can be applied (however rutile flux cored will require different techniques). The travel angle is that angle which is defined when the gun is in a perpendicular position within the joint plane. This method reduces the possibilities of crater cracks. This angle can also be used to partially define the position of guns, torches, rods, and beams. The tip should form an angle of approximately 45 degrees with the plate surface. The torch is held at approximately a 45 degree angle from the vertical in the direction of welding, as shown in figure 11-4. Arc welding faults. This discontinuity weakens the toe of the weld, increasing the chances of cracking. For most wire welding applications, this angle is 15 to 30 degrees. As a rule of thumb, in stick welding arc length should match the diameter of the electrode metal. The second angle used in welding is the travel angle. google_ad_client = "pub-0048113051831248"; Rod angle, arc length, travel speed and welding motion are illustrated with photos and videos, and a video shows the effect of varying the arc length. Correcting the problem is relatively simple: reduce the welding current, decrease the welding arc voltage and adjust your MIG gun angle toward the joint. This gives the welder a better view of what's going on in the puddle. What gun travel angle is recommended for GMAW-P aluminum? Quenching plates after welding (to cool them down) is a practice that's generally frowned upon after the first semester of welding school. 7-16). google_ad_slot = "6853920422"; Also, when the rate of voltage is too low, the weld bead sits on top of the base metal rather than penetrating into it. With a fillet (tee) weld, hold the rod or wire (regardless of weld process) at a 45° angle between the two pieces of metal. The work and travel angle is the angle you have the torch at in relation to the base metal (where you are going to weld). At slower travel speeds, the arc is directly above the center of the molten weld pool. (AWS Welding … The angle relative to the gun if it were held in a perpendicular position to the surface of the weld. A grinder also removes cracks on the surface. The electrode angle consists of two positions: work angle and travel angle. For stick welding, you have to drag the weld. Stick and wire welding require different angles. At the same time, the use of incorrect shielding gas, incorrect welding angle, wrong welding technique, and position are some of the primary causes of this welding flaw. The most common travel angle is called a drag angle in which the electrode points in a direction opposite that of the arc travel. For a 2F horizontal Tee, I used a slight drag pull angle of around 5-10 degrees. When welding on 10- to 18-gauge sheet steel, the fastest travel speeds are obtained with the work positioned at 45 to 75 degrees downhill. Work angle is the angle from the horizontal measured at right angles to the direction of welding (fig, 7-15). Where access to the reverse side of the joint is available, the condition of the penetration bead is less important as the root bead can be ground to sound metal and a sealing pass deposited. © Copyright Integrated Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. for downhill mig, a 90 degree works but a pull torch angle of up to 20 deg seems to work better at keeping the puddle pushed back from the arc. Held close to the work plates, the current and heat in the weld remains high. Normally it should be around 5 to 15 degrees. Also, don't overweld or make a weld that is larger than necessary for the sake of joint strength—this may lead to burn-through. google_ad_height = 600; Welders refer to charts from welding machine and electrode manufacturers, or a welding procedure specification (WPS) for their current settings, or try welding on sample plates of the same thickness to see what works best. 45° work angle with a 5° to 10° drag travel angle. See Weld Defects for more on this subject. Needless to say, the angle of your beveled sides should be appropriate for the thickness of the metal and the welding process being used. As for the face of the weld, it should lie in an approximately vertical plane. The principle of metal cored wire welding is given in the picture below. As a student, it's easy to assume that once the metal heats up, everything falls together naturally and all the little rough spots will disappear like magic. Hold the electrode perpendicular to the joint, and then tilt the top in the direction of travel approximately 5 to 15 degrees. Profiles and sections of welds with various faults are compared with good welds on this page. As the angle between the electrode and the plate determines the point of impingement and direction of the arc force, it has a critical effect on the weld bead profile and depth of penetration. Travel Angle: the degree of the travel angle, whether a push or drag travel angle, affects how much of the arc force is directed down into the base plate. Travel angle is the angle in the direction of welding and may vary from 5 to 30 degrees, depending on the welder's choice and conditions (fig. A metallurgy class teaches welders the many forms of heat treatment and their advantages - like hardening, tempering and annealing. A typical pipe butt weld set-up would be 60° included angle, 1mm to 2mm root gap and a zero to 1.5mm thick root face. For this reason, students also learn the difference between Electrode StickOut (the wire length from the contact tip) and Contact-To-Work-Distance . While some stick electrodes are designed to penetrate through rust and millscale, those impurities can still cause problems. And while low-carbon steel is much easier to work with than other metals, you should still adopt the habit of cleaning or grinding the areas you plan to weld. A steady motion is the most basic technique and requires the MIG welder be set exactly as needed. The types of welds, joints, and welding positions used in manual-shielded metal arc welding are very similar to those used in oxygas welding. What is the travel angle? The welding process is described as MAG welding with metal cored electrode and is marked as 138 according the ISO standards. Work angle is “the relationship between the axis of the electrode to the welders work piece.” Travel angle refers to employing either a push angle (pointing in the direction of travel) or a drag angle, when the electrode is pointed opposite of travel. Travel angles beyond 20 to 25 degrees can lead to more spatter, less penetration and general arc instability. Electrode angle is pretty forgiving as long as the arc length is tight. The angle is measured in the plane containing the weld axis and the electrode axis. Work angle is especially important in multiple-pass fillet welding. Angle - There are two torch angles to remember when welding. Although the photos above don't show it, too long of an arc can cause porosity (air bubbles) inside the weld, spatter on the base metal and undercutting at the toes of the joint. For welding vertical up, use a push or forehand technique and tilt the top of the electrode 0 to 15 degrees away from the direction of travel. As described in Types of Beads, a weave, whip, drag or push motion are all examples of manipulation. In this position, the torch is usually held at a 45-degree angle. But if it crosses 20 degrees, it may result in weak penetration and instability of the arc. /* 120x600, created 3/17/09 */ Move too slow and you'll end up with a fat weld bead and likely too much heat going into your work plates. (Think of this as the front view of the work plates.) Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) – commonly known as ‘stick welding’ – is one of the most widely used welding processes for joining metal. With stick welding, maintain a 20° to 30° lead angle in the dragging direction. Manipulation - This refers to the movement of the welder's hand as he or she guides the electrode along the joint. Travel Speed In most cases, weld penetration into a base material is increased when the travel speed of a weld is increased, and vice versa. The major cause of undercuts in welding is when the operator (welder) uses a high welding current or welds with fast travel speed. Normally, a small variance of the work angle will not affect the appearance or quality of a weld; however, when undercuts occur in the vertical section of a fillet weld, the angle of the arc should be lowered and the electrode directed more toward the vertical section. Travel and Work Angle: In a perpendicular position, the travel angle is the angle that is relative to the gun. The proper welding gun or work angle, travel angle and MIG welding technique depends on the thickness of the base metal and the welding position. Beginner welders tend to move the rod too quickly, especially those who are transitioning to arc welding from another welding process. The normal travel angle for all sorts of conditions and positions are from 5 to 15 degrees. The flame will be pointed in the welding direction. For wire welding, Hoes and Liesner recommend holding the gun at a 10 to 15-degree angle. Travel angle is the angle in the direction of welding and may vary from 5 to 30 degrees, depending on the welder's choice and conditions (fig. When you drag your torch or electrode, the tilt is directed towards the puddle, which helps with penetration and achieving a thick bead. This makes for a uniform weld. A standard traveling angle should be between 5 – 15 degrees. In stick welding, the welder sets the voltage directly but not the current, so the machines are referred to as Constant Current (CC). 2. Producing a weld bead that's the right size, shape and depth involves many variables. Travel speed is the rate at which the electrode travels along a weld seam. Cleaning your weld edges in advance is also important. In the diagram on the right, the travel angle shows a 5-10 degree tilt along the joint. The second angle used in welding is the travel angle. The work angle is the position of the gun relative to the welding joint’s angle. Going beyond 25 degrees increases spatter decreases arc stability and leads to less penetration. The following chart shows how some CLAMS variables impact a weld bead: In the last two examples, "WFS" stands for wirefeed speed, which is how MIG and flux cored welding machines regulate current. Speed - If you move too fast, the size of the weld will be small and achieve insufficient penetration. When learning any new process you'll likely start off doing things wrong. Variations in the ESO or CTWD affect the amount of the current going into the joint, regardless of the wirespeed setting on the machine. As you learn more about the chemical and mechanical properties of different metals and alloys, you may decide to include a pre or post heat treatment or your work pieces as part of the welding operation. The angle at which you hold the electrode greatly affects the shape of the weld bead which is very important in fillet and deep groove welding. a. If you have any website suggestions or concerns, email welder [at] thecityedition [dot] com. downhill mig can be effective for up to 1/4" thick if done right, but there are no guarantees. 45 degree work, 30 degree travel, lay root pass using slight whipping motion, use weave motion on … Length of Arc - How close to the work plates the welder holds the arc of a wire or welding electrode can affect the amount of current and heat going into the joint. In order to see the joint and puddle, the welder may tip the rod up to 10 degrees in the direction of travel, or sometimes against the direction of travel. The travel angle is the angle between a line perpendicular to the weld axis and the electrode. a. What is the work angle and travel angle for Lap Joints in the Flat Position when welding a multi-pass? The basics of a steady motion are the hotter the setting in most cases the better the weld. There shouldn't be any burrs, gaps or evenness. Travel angle is defined as the angle relative to the gun in a perpendicular position. Naturally, the techniques are somewhat different because of the equipment involved is different. a. Argon and Oxygen b. So voltage determines the overall profile, or geometry, of the weld. In fact, you can make things worse if you don't take the time to do your fit-up correctly. M is for manipulation of electrode. It is what most robots use to weld and it can produce a perfect weld in any position. That's because the quench has a sort of traumatizing effect to the metal and can make it brittle. The maximum speed of welding depends on the skill of the operator, the position of the weld, the type of electrode, and the required joint penetration. for uphill mig, a 90 degree angle works good. Size: The thickness of the base metal should factor into the decision about which diameter electrode, rod, wire or torch tip you use to make the weld, as well as your voltage, wirespeed and/or current settings. so does a slight push angle of up to about 10 degrees. It is recommended that the welding torch be held essentially perpendicular to the work-piece, with the work angle at 90° from the horizontal and only a slight travel angle of 0° to 5°. Push c. Drag d. This depends upon the welding position. If a large drag angle is utilized, air may be drawn into the shielding gas and contaminate the weld. In order to see the joint and puddle, the welder may tip the rod up to 10 degrees in the direction of travel, or sometimes against the direction of travel. That's because the arc is more concentrated, and thus capable of burning through metal. ------------------------------------------, Copyright © 2012-2015 TheCityEdition.com, Improving Your Stick Welding Technique MillerWelds.com, Open root v groove butt joint 3G vertical up video, Using CLAMS paramenters in Stick Welding The mass of your work pieces also has an effect, with tinier work pieces heating up much faster than large, heavy pieces.. Low-carbon steel can be very forgiving when overheated, but other metals may lose their tensile strength or other qualities if you don't monitor the heat going in and out of the plates or pipe. This procedure fills the crater and prevents porosity and slag inclusions. Travel Angle – The angle less than 90 degrees between the electrode axis and a line perpendicular to the weld axis, in a plane determined by the electrode axis and the weld axis. A is for Angle of Electrode. Heat Dispersal: Different metals disperse heat differently. A travel angle of 0° to 10° (i.e., the electrode perpendicular or mostly perpendicular to the plate) will result in more weld penetration. If the angle reaches 20-25 degrees it’s likely to reduce the penetration, increase the level of spatter and may even interfere with the stability of the arc. TheFabricator.com,